Scale Construction and Development

A 2-Day Seminar Taught by Tenko Raykov, Ph.D.

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To see a sample of the course materials, click here.

Researchers in a wide range of disciplines are frequently involved in the development and revision of multiple-item measuring instruments, including scales, tests, inventories, questionnaires, surveys, subscales, and testlets. Scores obtained from these measuring instruments are usually employed in subsequent analyses that address substantive research questions. To a substantial degree, the quality of these instruments determines the extent to which the analyses and modeling efforts produce trustworthy results. In order to construct scales of high psychometric quality, researchers must engage in many activities aimed at building initial versions of the instruments and then repeatedly revise them to improve their performance.

This two-day seminar provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scale construction and development in the social and behavioral sciences, especially as applied to empirical settings where measuring instruments consist of multiple components or items with no guessing. Throughout the seminar, many empirical examples are utilized from the clinical, behavioral, educational, social, marketing, and organizational disciplines. The popular latent variable modeling software Mplus is used for all the examples, along with a detailed discussion of the command syntax and interpretation of the output.

Participants in this seminar can expect to come away with:

1. A nuanced understanding of the conceptual foundations and basic mathematical and statistical relationships underlying behavioral instrument construction and development.
2.  The ability to understand, interpret and explain the output from statistical software for achieving the goals of psychometric scale construction and revision.
3.  An appreciation of the advantages of a thorough study of the underlying latent structure of a tentative version of a multi-component instrument.
4.  Practical tools and strategies for constructing an initial version of a scale.
5.  Methods for revising a scale in order to achieve higher psychometric standards.
6. The ability to deal with issues arising in the practice of scale construction and development.

This is a hands-on course with at least one hour each day devoted to carefully structured and supervised assignments. 


Mplus will be used for all examples, but prior knowledge of Mplus is not essential or required. To participate in the hands-on exercises, you are strongly encouraged to bring your own laptop computer with Mplus installed. (The demo version of Mplus will suffice for most examples utilized in the course, as well as on the remaining examples after minor modification.)

In addition, for convenient and quick confidence interval construction, short R-functions will also be provided. However, knowledge of R is not essential, required, or expected.


To benefit from this seminar, you should have the equivalent of one or more semesters of statistics: a good introductory course with some treatment of probability and random variables as well as regression analysis. Some knowledge of multivariate statistics would also be helpful, but is not essential.

Location, Format and materials

The class will meet from 9 am to 5 pm each day with a 1-hour lunch break at Temple University Center City, 1515 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103. 

Participants receive a bound manual containing detailed lecture notes (with equations and graphics), examples of computer printout, and many other useful features. This book frees participants from the distracting task of note taking. 

Registration and Lodging

The fee of $995.00 includes all seminar materials. The early registration fee of $895 is available until March 26.

Refund Policy

If you cancel your registration at least two weeks before the course is scheduled to begin, you are entitled to a full refund (minus a processing fee of $50). 

Lodging Reservation Instructions 

Hotel information will be posted when available.


  1. Resources for the seminar.
  2. Factor analysis – a modeling basis for instrument construction and development in the social and behavioral sciences; exploratory and confirmatory analyses, models, and their fitting to data.
  3. Scale development with categorical items – examining latent structure for a set of categorical items and instrument improvement.
  4. Construction of initial scale version – how to choose items from a possible pool; point and interval estimation of item difficulty, inter-item correlations, and item-total correlations, all doing it the right way.
  5. Scale revision to enhance psychometric quality – coefficient alpha and reliability; point and interval estimation of reliability as well as of change in reliability due to revision, and why “Alpha if item deleted” should generally not be used.
  6. Essential unidimensionality of multiple component measuring instruments – when could we consider a scale practically unidimensional even though it may not be strictly homogeneous.
  7. Some practical issues in scale construction and development – what may be relevant in a practical setting for instrument development and revision; validity, multidimensional, and hierarchical scales.
  8. Scale construction and development with data from nationally representative studies.
  9. Optimal shortening of scales.
  10. Conclusion. 


“This course was exactly what I needed. Very practical and clear. I started applying the lessons from Day 1 with my own data that night, and plan to do the same with today’s content when I get home this evening. I would absolutely recommend this class to applied researchers with a range of statistical expertise.”
  Abigail Gray, CPRE 

“As a PhD student, I found this course useful in terms of the tools it provided me with. I can now tackle more confidently some issues I have had with my research.”
  Halley Pontes, Nottingham Trent University

“Our professor/speaker was well versed in statistics and his explanations were detailed. He entertains questions and takes time to explain and expound on his answers by giving practical examples.”
  Mariel Kristine Rubia, Profiles Asia Pacific

“A great course for anyone interested in the psychometric analysis aspects of scale construction.”
  Patience Afulani, University of California, San Francisco

“Professor Raykov provides answers for all of your methodology-related questions.”
  Serkan Dolma, Pamukkale University